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Vertical Gas Ports are holes drilled from the top of the piston into the back of the top ring groove and perpendicular to the ring groove (First Photo).
Lateral Gas Ports are holes drilled from the OD of the top ring land, right above the top ring groove and to the back of the top ring groove (Second Photo).
The purpose of gas ports is to apply combustion pressure directly to the top ring and force the ring face firmly against the cylinder wall, for maximum sealing. When not under load, the ring is under normal tension for reduced friction. The type of gas ports, quantity and hole size depends on piston/engine application and usage.
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